Monthly Archives: September 2015

Automatic decryption of TLS private keys with Deo

Deo is a protocol for network-bound encryption which provides for automatic decryption of secrets when a client is on a given network, and an implementation of the protocol. Importantly, it is not a key escrow service.

The original use case for Deo was automatic decryption of encrypted disks, e.g. for servers in datacentres or employee laptops when inside the corporate firewall. This provides convenience and time savings for operators but if disks are not on the secure network (e.g. due to warranty service or theft) they cannot be automatically decrypted. A typical configuration will fall back to password-based decryption, so choosing a secure passphrase is still important.

A high-level description of the protocol and specific details about the disk encryption use case including LUKS integration is found on the FreeIPA wiki. Source code is available at GitHub.

In this post we will explore an alternative use case for Deo: automatic decryption of TLS keys. Before we get to that, let’s review how Deo works.

Deo protocol

The Deo server uses two sets of keys: one for TLS – providing privacy and authentication for the network connection – and the other for encryption and decryption of secrets. All communication between client and server is protected by TLS.

A client who wishes to encrypt a secret first asks the Deo server for its encryption certificate (which may be accompanied by intermediate certificates forming a chain to the trust root). It then uses the public key to encrypt the secret and stores the resulting ciphertext along with some metadata.

To decrypt the secret, the client transmits the stored ciphertext to the Deo server, which decrypts and returns the secret.

Keen observers will note that the client must trust the server not to store, divulge or misuse the secret, which it learns during the decryption operation. Nathaniel McCallum has made progress on a protocol that does not permit the server or eavesdroppers to learn the secret, strengthening the scheme against offline attacks, but this has not been implemented in Deo yet.

TLS private keys in Deo

Anyone who has deployed TLS or administered web servers know that it is a nusiance to have to enter the passphrase to decrypt the private key(s) when starting or restarting the server. If a server restarts unexpectedly and no operator is on hand to supply the passphrase, it cannot come up. There are few secure technical solutions to this problem. Disturbingly it is frequently suggested to store the private key in the clear.

If a server offers the right configuration or interfaces, it should be possible to use Deo to automatically decrypt the secret keys including TLS private keys. In this example we will use Deo to decrypt Apache httpd / mod_ssl keys. The examples assume that a deo-decryptd server is running at deo.ipa.local on the default port (5700).

mod_ssl for Apache provides the SSLPassPhraseDialog directive. The default value builtin causes mod_ssl to prompt for the passphrase although on Fedora (and perhaps other systemd-based OSes) the standard mod_ssl configuration uses a helper script to acquire the passphrase in a systemd-friendly way:

SSLPassPhraseDialog exec:/usr/libexec/httpd-ssl-pass-dialog

Let’s see it in action:

[f22-4:~] ftweedal% sudo systemctl restart httpd
Enter SSL pass phrase for f22-4.ipa.local:443 (RSA) : ********

If we look inside /usr/libexec/httpd-ssl-pass-dialog we see that the exec:... directive uses command line arguments to indicate the server and key type:

#!/bin/sh
exec /bin/systemd-ask-password "Enter SSL pass phrase for $1 ($2) : "

Apache expects the script to print the passphrase on standard output. We can write a passphrase helper that conforms to this interface but uses Deo to decrypt the passphrase, falling back to prompting if decryption fails or the Deo server is unavailable. Deo ciphertext files will be stored under /etc/httpd/deo.d/ (an arbitrary decision). The complete helper script, which is saved as /usr/libexec/httpd-deo-helper, is:

#!/bin/sh
DEO_FILE="/etc/httpd/deo.d/$1"
[ -f "$DEO_FILE" ] && deo decrypt < "$DEO_FILE" && echo && exit
exec /bin/systemd-ask-password "Enter SSL pass phrase for $1 ($2) : "

The behaviour of this script is:

  1. Check for the existence of a file in the deo.d/ directory relating to the server indicated in the first command argument.
  2. If the file exists, attempt to deo decrypt it and exit if successful.
  3. If the file does not exist or if decryption fails, fall back to systemd-ask-password.

We must also update the Apache configuration to use the new helper:

SSLPassPhraseDialog exec:/usr/libexec/httpd-deo-helper

Next we need to create a Deo ciphertext file for each server. The following shell command will read the passphrase (the same one used to encrypt the private key) from standard input, deo encrypt it and write it to the appropriate file in deo.d/:

(stty -echo; read LINE; echo -n "$LINE") \
  | deo encrypt -a /etc/ipa/ca.pem deo.ipa.local \
  > /etc/httpd/deo.d/f22-4.ipa.local:443

Finally, I had to apply appropriate SELinux labels to the httpd-deo-helper script and deo.d/ files and extend the policy to allow processes in the httpd_passwd_t domain to read Apache config files and talk over the network. The labelling commands are:

% semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_passwd_exec_t /usr/libexec/httpd-deo-helper
% restorecon /usr/libexec/httpd-deo-helper
% restorecon -R /etc/httpd

The SELinux type enforcement (TE) module source looks like:

policy_module(httpd_deo, 1.0.0)

require {
        type httpd_passwd_t;
        type httpd_config_t;
        type unreserved_port_t;
        class dir { search };
        class file { read getattr open };
        class tcp_socket { name_connect };
}

allow httpd_passwd_t httpd_config_t:dir search;
allow httpd_passwd_t httpd_config_t:file { read getattr open };
allow httpd_passwd_t unreserved_port_t:tcp_socket name_connect;

Now that all of this is in place, when the Apache server starts, if the deo-decryptd server is accessible (and its certificates are still valid) the passphrase will be decrypted automatically and used to decrypt the private key; an operator does not need to provide it. Mission accomplished!

Limitations

The encrypted secret is the same passphrase used to encrypt the key, so a good passphrase must be used. There is no option to only support Deo decryption (although I guess that password fallback would usually be wanted anyway.) Support for using Deo on its own or in conjunction with non-password-based encryption methods necessarily results in more complicated designs that are not supported by mod_ssl’s limited configurability in this regard.

Our implementation is based on an ad-hoc design specific to Apache (e.g. the deo.d/ directory and the naming convention of files therein.) The general design may be widely applicable but for other servers the details will differ (if they support the helper paradigm at all; see next section.)

Finally, we have not implemented any plugins for Deo itself, unlike the disk encryption use case where there is a dedicated command (deo cryptsetup) for people to use. In my opinion the design presented in this post is simple enough not to warrant it but if a common configuration layout was adopted by popular server software it might make sense to provide a plugin.

What about { mod_nss , nginx , … }?

The ability to do Deo decryption with mod_ssl hinges on the SSLPassPhraseDialog directive and in particular its ability to execute a helper program and provide it with enough information to distinguish the target key. mod_nss and nginx’s ssl_module have directives to provide the password(s) in a flat file but no support for invoking helper programs.

NSS works well with PKCS #11 modules so it might be possible to implement a module that uses Deo to decrypt key material. This approach would benefit any other programs that use PKCS #11 but I have not yet looked closely at this option.

The nginx code base is modern and clean and if the developers are receptive it would be worthwhile to add behaviour similar to Apache’s SSLPassPhraseDialog.

For other servers, check the documentation. If you wish to implement for Deo in a program that you work on – either directly or by invoking helper programs – you may find the following OpenSSL and NSS API documentation useful:

Concluding notes

Deo emerged from disk encryption use cases but the protocol is useful in other contexts, including operator-less decryption of secrets used by network servers. We examined a straightforward implementation of Deo-based automatic TLS private key decryption for Apache with mod_ssl and also saw that current versions of mod_nss (for Apache) and nginx don’t support the underlying design. Supporting Deo decryption in a PKCS #11 module is an area for further investigation.

Future revisions of the Deo protocol may offer better trust characteristics; it could be possible to prevent the server from learning the secret. Use of Deo as a part of a larger escrow protocol is another area being explored.

If you have questions or ideas about other uses for Deo, please start a conversation on the mailing list or in #freeipa on Freenode, or raise an issue on GitHub.

Delegating certificate issuance in FreeIPA

FreeIPA 4.2 brings several certificate management improvements including custom profiles and user certificates. Along with the explosion in certificate use cases that are now support comes the question of how to manage certificate issuance, along two dimensions: which entities can be issued what kinds of certificates, and who can actually request a certificate? The first aspect is managed via CA ACLs, which were explained in a previous article. In this post I detail how FreeIPA decides whether a requesting principal is allowed to request a certificate for the subject principal, and how to delegate the authority to issue certificates.

Self-service requests

The simplest scenario is a principal using cert-request to request a certificate for itself as the certificate subject. This action is permitted for user and host principals but the request is still subject to CA ACLs; if no CA ACL permits issuance for the combination of subject principal and certificate profile, the request will fail.

Implementation-wise, self-service works because there are directory server ACIs that permit bound principals to modify their own userCertificate attribute; there is no explicit permission object.

Hosts

Hosts may request certificates for any hosts and services that are managed by the requesting host. These relationships are managed via the ipa host-{add,remove}-managedby commands, and a single host or service may be managed by multiple hosts.

This rule is implemented using directory server ACIs that allow hosts to write the userCertificate attribute when the managedby relationship exists, otherwise not. In the IPA framework, we conduct a permission check to see if the bound (requesting) principal can write the subject principal’s attribute. This is nicer (and probably faster) than interpreting the managedby attribute in the FreeIPA framework.

If you are interested, the ACI rules look like this:

dn: cn=services,cn=accounts,$SUFFIX
aci: (targetattr="userCertificate || krbPrincipalKey")(version 3.0;
      acl "Hosts can manage service Certificates and kerberos keys";
      allow(write) userattr = "parent[0,1].managedby#USERDN";)

dn: cn=computers,cn=accounts,$SUFFIX
aci: (targetattr="userCertificate || krbPrincipalKey")(version 3.0;
      acl "Hosts can manage other host Certificates and kerberos keys";
      allow(write) userattr = "parent[0,1].managedby#USERDN";)

As usual, these requests are also subject to CA ACLs.

Finally, subjectAltName dNSName values are matched against hosts (if the subject principal is a host) or services (if it’s a service); they are treated as additional subject principals and the same permission and CA ACL checks are carried out for each.

Users

FreeIPA’s Role Based Access Control (RBAC) system is used to assign certificate issuance permissions to users (or other principal types). There are several permissions related to certificate management:

Request Certificate

The main permission that allows a user to request certificates for other principals.

Request Certificate with SubjectAltName

This permission allows a user (one who already has Request Certificate permission) to request a certificate with the subjectAltName extension (the check is skipped when the request is self-service or initated by a host principal). Regardless of this permission we comprehensively validate the SAN extension whenever present in a CSR (and always have), so I’m not sure why this exists as a separate permission. I proposed to remove this permission and allow SAN by default but the conversation died.

Request Certificate ignoring CA ACLs (new in FreeIPA 4.2)

The main use case for this permission is where a certain profile is not appropriate for self-service. For example, if you want to issue certificates bearing some estoeric or custom extension unknown to (and therefore not validatable by) FreeIPA, you can define a profile that copies the extension data verbatim from the CSR. Such a profile ought not be made available for self-service via CA ACLs, but this permission will allow a privileged user to issue the certificates on behalf of others.

System: Manage User Certificates (new in FreeIPA 4.2.1)

Permits writing the userCertificate attribute of user entries.

System: Manage Host Certificates

Permits writing the userCertificate attribute of host entries.

System: Modify Services

Permits writing the userCertificate attribute of service entries.

There are other permissions related to revocation and retrieving certificate information from the Dogtag CA. It might make sense for certificate administrators to have some of these permissions but they are not needed for issuance and I will not detail them here.

The RBAC system is used to group permissions into privileges and privileges into roles. Users, user groups, hosts, host groups and services can then be assigned to a role. Let’s walk through an example: we want members of the user-cert-managers group to be able to issue certificates for users. The SAN extension will be allowed, but CA ACLs may not be bypassed.

It bears mention that there is a default privilege called Certificate Administrators that contains most of the certificate management permissions; for this example we will create a new privilege that contains only the required permissions. We will use the ipa CLI program to implement this scenario, but it can also be done using the web UI. Assuming we have a privileged Kerberos ticket, let’s first create a new privilege and add to it the required permissions:

ftweedal% ipa privilege-add "Issue User Certificate"
----------------------------------------
Added privilege "Issue User Certificate"
----------------------------------------
  Privilege name: Issue User Certificate

ftweedal% ipa privilege-add-permission "Issue User Certificate" \
    --permission "Request Certificate" \
    --permission "Request Certificate with SubjectAltName" \
    --permission "System: Manage User Certificates"
  Privilege name: Issue User Certificate
  Permissions: Request Certificate,
               Request Certificate with SubjectAltName,
               System: Manage User Certificates
-----------------------------
Number of permissions added 3
-----------------------------

Next we create a new role and add the privilege we just created:

ftweedal% ipa role-add "User Certificate Manager"
-------------------------------------
Added role "User Certificate Manager"
-------------------------------------
  Role name: User Certificate Manager

ftweedal% ipa role-add-privilege "User Certificate Manager" \
    --privilege "Issue User Certificate"
  Role name: User Certificate Manager
  Privileges: Issue User Certificate
----------------------------
Number of privileges added 1
----------------------------

Finally we add the user-cert-managers group (which we assume already exists) to the role:

ftweedal% ipa role-add-member "User Certificate Manager" \
    --groups user-cert-managers
  Role name: User Certificate Manager
  Member groups: user-cert-managers
  Privileges: Issue User Certificate
-------------------------
Number of members added 1
-------------------------

With that, users who are members of the user-cert-managers group will be able to request certificates for all users.

Conclusion

In addition to self-service, FreeIPA offers a couple of ways to delegate certificate request permissions. For hosts, the managedby relationship grants permission to request certificates for services and other hosts. For users, RBAC can be used to grant permission to manage user, host and service principals, even separately as needs dictate. In all cases except where the RBAC Request Certificate ignoring CA ACLs permission applies, CA ACLs are enforced.

Looking ahead, I can see scope for augmenting or complementing CA ACLs – which currently are concerned with the subject or target principal and care nothing about the requesting principal – with a mechanism to control which principals may issue requests involving a particular profile. But how much this is wanted we will wait and see; it is one of many possible improvents to FreeIPA’s certificate management and all will have to be judged according to the demand and impact.